Posted on

The ‘cc’ is engine capacity, usually expressed in cubic centimetres

Dear Baraza,

Please enlighten me on the 1500cc and 1800cc capacity of a car. I want to choose between a Toyota Wish, a Fielder, a Premio and an Allion. My question is, what does the cc of a car translate to?

I have been told an 1800cc car consumes more fuel than a 1500cc. But is there a benefit I would derive from the 1800cc? Does the car “perform” better? Is it “stronger/more powerful”?

I live in Kikuyu and currently drive a 1500cc NZE. On a rainy day, a 200m stretch of a dirt road takes a lot of prayers as I skid through the mud. A 4 x 4 is not within my budget at the moment.

Caro

The “cc” of a car is called the engine displacement, which in layman’s terms means the engine size. In a nutshell, an engine works like this: air goes into the engine, this air is mixed with fuel in a particular ratio then this air-fuel mixture (called the intake charge) is fed into the engine cylinders where it is set on fire by spark plugs through electrical arcing.

Petrol is explosive, so when mixed with air and set on fire, it explodes.

This is the basic set-up of a cylinder: at the top are two sets of valves, one set called the inlet valves which allow the intake charge to enter the cylinder, and another set called the exhaust valves that allow the burnt gases (exhaust) to leave the cylinder. The cylinder is basically a tube with a tight-fitting but movable piston within it.

When the intake charge enters the cylinder, it is set on fire and explodes. This explosion forces the piston downwards, in what we call the power stroke.

The effect of this explosion pushing the piston downwards is equivalent to that of your leg pushing downwards when pedalling a bicycle. It provides the torque that gives rotating motion and movement.

This is where we pause for a moment. The piston goes down, but how does it come back up? Just like a bicycle, when the pedal goes down, it is brought back up by the downward push of the opposite pedal.

The main sprocket (the big-toothed wheel to which the chain and pedals are attached on a bicycle) has its equivalent as the crankshaft in a vehicle engine. It translates reciprocating motion (up and down or back and forth movement) into rotating motion (circular movement).

Therefore, the piston in an engine is brought upwards by the downward motion of other pistons (a typical engine has several pistons: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 or even 16, but the commonest number is four).

For single-cylinder engines like motorcycles and chainsaws, the momentum gained by the downward push is what brings the piston up.

So, back to the cylinder: Primary school mathematics taught us that cylinders have volume, got by the base area (pi multiplied by the square of the radius) multiplied by the length/height of the cylinder.

The length of the cylinder is determined by the limits of piston travel, that is, from the topmost limit that the piston reaches before starting to head back downwards, to the lowest limit it reaches before going back up.

This cylinder volume, multiplied by the number of cylinders, is what gives us the engine capacity, commonly expressed in cc (actually cubic centimeters) such as 1500cc or 1800cc; and in litres as 3,0-litre engine or 4.7-litre engine.

More cc means more swept volume by the cylinders, right? More swept volume means more intake charge going into the engine, right? More intake charge means more air and more petrol, and therefore, bigger explosions which create more downward force on the piston crowns.

So yes: a bigger engine develops more power. An 1800cc car is “stronger/more powerful” than a 1500cc one and it performs better.

I also live in Kikuyu, but I will not specify where exactly for obvious reasons. It can get quite unbecoming in the rainy season, I know, and now that you cannot buy an SUV, your options are a little limited.

You could buy a 4WD version of the listed vehicles (they do come with 4WD as an option, these cars) which will offer increased directional stability and better traction, and/or (especially and) buy deeply treaded tyres which have better grip in the mud.

You will be surprised at how well they hold the muddy ground. The payoff is that they are not very good on tarmac, but then again, they are not disastrous either.

I don’t think you spend your time cornering at the limit or hunting STI Subarus, so the reduced tarmac-gripping ability will go unnoticed. Just buy the treaded tyres.

Hi Baraza,

Good work you’re doing.

I bought a non-turbo Imprezza in February last year. Towards the end of the year, it developed a clunky noise at the front right wheel, which I suspect to be a worn out bush.

As I organise my finances, please tell me what risk(s) I run if I delay replacement of the same.

Lastly, which exhaust configuration would you recommend for a non-turbo to gain slightly more pick up speed?

Ndung’u Ngaruiya

Hello,

A late replacement of the bush means you first have to put up with the clunky noise a bit longer.

The steering might also feel a little unusual with time and the bush gets eaten away some more, losing part of the geometry in the process. And the ride will become a little thumpy and rattly over bumps and ruts.

You need to get what is called a through-pipe (straight exhaust, no cat) if you want better engine response.

Without the restrictions caused by the kinks, catalytic converter and silencer, exhaust gases flow faster out of the engine and offer reduced back pressure, leading to what I’d call a “zingy” response: a slightly increased “revviness” of the engine.

Hi,
I am an ardent reader of your column. I recently bought an automatic Toyota Fielder 1500cc, new model.

Note that I have never had an automatic car before, and that during my driving classes in 2003, I did not use an automatic car. If I was taught anything about automatic cars, I must have forgotten it all. So, kindly explain:

1. Why is it that when I am driving slowly, the ECO light appears on the screen/dash board but disappears as I increase speed?

2. The gear has the letters N, P, R and D-S (not arranged according to how they appear in the vehicle) marked at different points, except D and S, which are side by side.

What does S stand for and when is it supposed to be used. Also, explain fuel consumption when driving on S in comparison to driving on D.

3. If you don’t mind, explain the meanings of those D, P, R, S, D1, D2 in automatic vehicles and when one is supposed to engage them. This is what I know so far: D-Drive, P-Parking, R-Reverse and S-Speed/Screed, not sure which.

(Last but not the least, I don’t want my questions to appear in the newspaper).

Too bad for you, it looks like you made it into the paper anyway! We will not divulge your identity though, so don’t worry.

1. The ECO light comes on when the vehicle is in economy mode, meaning it is burning very little fuel, if any.

Common in most Japanese saloons, especially those equipped with automatic transmissions, the mode is activated by a driving style that epitomises hypermiling; in the instances that I witnessed this light glowing (while driving the Toyotas Vista and Premio, but of course not both at the same time), the accelerator pedal was either depressed very lightly or not at all.

Invariably, I was rolling downhill in both, at moderate speeds, meaning the engine was doing no work and probably the injectors were shut off in turn, meaning the vehicles were consuming little or no fuel, hence economy mode, ergo the ECO light.

2. Those are a lot of things you have listed: are you sure they are all in the same car? Anyway, here goes. P is for Park, a selector position that locks the transmission in both forward and reverse, acting as a static brake.

The vehicle cannot move in either direction as both directions are engaged. R is for Reverse, and is used if you want to go backwards. N is for Neutral, the exact opposite of Park.

Whereas in Park both forward and reverse gears are selected, in Neutral no gear is selected, so the vehicle is in freewheel mode.

This is mostly used when towing, but as I have come to learn, certain people take the things I say rigidly so I will issue a disclaimer: A vehicle can only be towed when it is in Neutral, however, Neutral is not only for towing.

I hope I’m clear on that. D is for Drive, which is the opposite of Reverse. Select it if you want to go forward.

S is Sport mode, a selection in which the transmission holds onto gears for longer, changing up and down at higher revs than in Drive (Normal mode). The positions 1 (or L), 2 and 3 — where available — lock the transmission in those gears, disallowing upshifts beyond the respective selector position but allowing downshifts.

Lastly, what, in the name of burnt clutches, is Screed?

Thanks for the very informative Car Clinic story on October 29, 2014.  

I have a similar situation. My car has four options; N, 4H, 4L, 2L. Whenever I select N, the car makes the same noise on the dash board.

When I drive the car on 4H, the consumption is quite high; recently I monitored the consumption with this selection and noted that 18 litres took me 136km, which translated to 7.5km local running.

The other two selections are quite heavy for the car, with even worse consumption. My car’s consumption is currently very high. I expected it to be relatively low, considering that it is a VVT.  I have reached out to local dealer CMC, to no avail.\

Please advise. 

George

What car is this? By mentioning CMC and VVT (not VVTi), I’ll hazard a guess and say it is a Suzuki of some sort, possibly a Grand Vitara.

For starters, what engine does it have? You might say 7.5km/l is quite high, but if you have the 2.7 litre V6 engine, that is not high. After all, it is an SUV, isn’t it?

The other two selections give worse economy figures, and they should. This is because they constitute the low-range section of the transfer case, meaning extra low gearing for the sake of torque multiplication, which in turn means the engine revs a lot but the corresponding motion is snail-like, just like a tractor. It is very hard on fuel, so again, the high consumption is to be expected.

Yes, you need help; help in the form of advice. Drive in High range only, unless you are doing some pretty hardcore off-road stuff that would warrant the use of Low range. Just one quick question: what dashboard noise does the car make in N (Neutral)?

Posted on

The Surf slightly edges out the Pajero and RAV4

Hello Baraza,

Thank you for your advice on motoring.

Could you kindly take your time to help me decide on what is the best vehicle in relation to the issues I state below?

1. Infrequent travel on the rough roads of areas like Marsabit, Turkana, and the coastal region.

2. Going to work in town.

The vehicle should be able to tackle rough roads with potholes and other rough road conditions, be fuel efficient and comfortable, have good ground clearance and strong suspension, and be affordable.

The vehicles I have in mind are the Honda CRV, Mitsubishi Pajero (SWB or LWB), Toyota Hilux Surf, Subaru Forester, Suzuki Vitara, Toyota RAV4, Land Rover Discovery, and any other you may suggest.

Regards,

Livingstone T.

Livingstone, the Land Rover Discovery does not tick the ‘affordable’ box on this list, but it more or less covers the rest. Watch out on the “strong suspension” aspect also; the air suspension on the Discovery 3 is very leaky and someone once told me that replacement costs Sh300,000 per corner… and you have to fix all four corners because they are all linked in a car with air suspension.

Since you say those off-road excursions are infrequent, this is a risk you can take if you can afford the car to begin with.

Toyota’s RAV4 fails on the ground clearance and strong suspension aspects. It neither hugs the ground, nor is its suspension built out of spaghetti; it is just that this list also includes the Mitsubishi Pajero, Land Rover Discovery, Toyota Surf, and the Suzuki Vitara.

The RAV4’s shortcomings similarly plague the Subaru Forester and the Honda CRV. Comfort, efficiency, and affordability are well covered by these crossovers (for the Suzuki Vitara, comfort is a bit lower than in the other three).

Having eliminated the Land Rover Discovery and three of the four crossovers (the Suzuki Vitara just barely crosses the line into the next elimination stage due to comfort), we are left with the Mitsubishi Pajero, Toyota Surf, and Suzuki Vitara.The little Suzuki is the cheapest, so we could call it the most affordable. Diesel-powered versions are not very common, and the petrol engines are 2.0, 2.4, and 2.7.

The 2.7 is best but it compromises on fuel economy. Also, much as it has ground clearance and strong suspension, it is eclipsed by the Mitsubishi and the Toyota; it just cannot compare. So it falls by the wayside in third position.

The Surf and the Pajero are not very different, except that the Pajero is a bit more upmarket and, therefore, more expensive. It is also more comfortable, but by an almost imperceptible margin. The Surf will go anywhere the Pajero does. Since the disparity in cost is not proportional to the disparity in comfort, we have a winner.

The Toyota Surf.

My suggestion? Get a Defender 110, in white. The latest version has a 2.2 litre turbo-diesel engine, so it is very economical. It will go anywhere (which Defender cannot)?

It is not very expensive compared to brand-new versions of all these other vehicles (ignore the little crossovers, they failed our test quite early in the game). Ground clearance like that was last seen on a giraffe.

The suspension is strong, but it is well optimised, making the new Defender actually hospitable to be in (Defenders of old had the ride quality of Fred Flintstone’s car). Check, check, check, and check.

The added bonus is that your car is unlikely to be stolen. There is a reason I specified a white one… wink, wink!

**********

Hi Baraza,

I love your articles; they are very informative and helpful.

However, I beg to differ on the advice you gave on February 6 regarding car resale value. If someone buys the Nissan at, say, Sh250,000 and its re-sale value is Sh100,000, is it not the same as someone investing Sh800,000 in a Toyota whose re-sale value is Sh600,000?

You have also mentioned that you do not understand why some cars are overrated in this market. Do you not think that the extra amount tied in a car can be used in income-generating activities? After all, only good maintenance and care ensures that you get from point A to point B, regardless of the make.

What say ye? On that note, I want to buy a KIA Sportage. It is beautiful. Any advice? Fuel consumption and availability of parts is not an issue.

Regards,

BO

I see you suffer from an affliction I once suffered from too: excessive number crunching. The figures you give there are true in percentage terms or ratios, but not in the real world. In one case, the owner loses Sh150,000. In the other he loses Sh200,000. That is not the same, irrespective of the numbers involved. This is one of the reasons why very expensive cars depreciate badly.

This is what I mean by the real world. You have a salary of Sh100,000, the Bible says to submit a tenth of that to God. So you have to part with Sh10,000. Depending on how devout you are, that is something you can live with.

Now, here is a shrewd business man with earnings of close to Sh100 million a month. He is not going to give up Sh10 million, no matter how devout he is, because Sh10 million is a lot of money, although in both cases it is 10 per cent of the principal sum.

If I have a sit-down with a friend and I tell him about how I lost Sh150,000 on a B12 and he tells me how he lost Sh200,000 on a Vista, I will not care about percentages. I will laugh at him because at the end of the day, he has lost more money than I did.

The KIA Sportage is a good RAV4 alternative, and friendlier to the pocket. We also have a KIA dealership, and KIA are world-famous for giving ridiculously generous warranties, so you will be in a good place in life if you get one. And, as you say, the car is beautiful.

**********

Dear Baraza,

I am a regular reader of your column. Keep up the good work. I have developed a liking for the Jaguar X and would like to own one. Kindly advise me on:

1. Availability and affordability of spare parts.

2.Its performance off-road and on-road.

3. Its fuel economy.

Thank you,

Anthony.

Availability of spares: Questionable outside of the Internet. However, affordability should not be too much of a worry, under the skin of that Jaguar you are swooning over is actually a Ford, a mid-range Mondeo saloon.

Performance on-road: Very Ford-like. Which means it is very un-Jaguar-ish. Not as fast as a real Jag. But while Ford-like, it is just a mite better than the Mondeo saloon lurking in its genes.

Off-road performance: That you can dare ask me this tells me maybe you are not as regular a reader of my column as you claim to be. Several times I have asked my readers not to use cars on tasks for which they were not designed. The X-Type is poor off-road. But the 4WD version is good on ice, which is irrelevant.

Fuel economy: A diesel-powered X Type will do 18kpl without breaking a sweat. A V6-engined 3.0 petrol X Type will dip below 5kpl if you drive in such a way as to make your passengers break into a sweat. The middle positioned 2.5 litre and 2.0 litre petrol engines should do about 11kpl and 13kpl respectively.

**********

Dear Baraza,

Thank you for your ever-refreshing motoring advice. Your column’s value to us motoring novices in Kenya is truly ineffable.

Now, I am looking to buy an MPV for ferrying my family around town and I am totally confused on which is best. I am torn between the Toyota Wish, Toyota Estima, Mazda Premacy, Toyota Avanza, and Toyota Ipsum. Kindly compare their build quality, light off-roading ability, fuel consumption, parts availability, and resale value (in around five to seven years).

Most importantly, can I get any of these cars in manual transmission? I absolutely hate automatic cars and would only buy one if there was no other option.

Regards,

Kevin.

Build quality: The Mazda Premacy is incredibly well-built.

Light off-roading ability: The Avanza is better than the rest, which are equal in their uselessness in this area.

Fuel consumption: Again, the Avanza. It is the only one available here with a 1.5 litre engine with VVT-i. The rest have 1.8 litre-plus engines and are big vans. The Avanza is thin and small.

Parts availability: If you cannot find parts for your car, use Google. Or your friends.

Resale value (in around five to seven years) is hard to tell. But the Mazda and Estima/Previa seem to hold their values better, more so the Toyota.

Manual transmission: Yes, the Avanza and the Previa are available with manual transmissions, but the Previa is UK-spec only. Otherwise… live with an automatic.

**********

Dear Baraza,

Thanks for your very informative articles. The information has really been helpful. I drive an automatic Toyota Wish. When driving to and from Mombasa I find myself hitting 140km/hr. I usually prefer a steady 120 km/hour.

When I notice this, instead of braking, I usually engage the free gear (neutral) and let the car slow down. A friend noticed this and told me applying free gear (neutral) destroys the gears while another friend tells me it lets the engine rest. My queries;

a) Does engaging the neutral gear allow the engine to rest ?

b) Does it destroy the gears, as my friend claims?

c) Does it save on fuel?

d) What would be any advantages and disadvantages of engaging the neutral gear?

Thanks in advance,

Antony Ng’ang’a.

a) No. Does the engine need to rest? Is it a living organism? With adequate fuel, lubrication, and cooling, an engine will run endlessly; it does not need to ‘rest’.

b) Only if re-engaging the gears is done improperly. This is why I always speak against driving in neutral. It is also a bit hard on the clutch, especially if no rev-matching occurs.

c) No, not really. Not as much as intelligent driving (driving in neutral to save fuel is not classified as intelligent driving, unless in desperate situations where the engine is off).

d) Advantages: you get to enjoy the feeling of “free-fall” when going downhill. Also, if done with plenty of forethought, driving in neutral will save fuel (this involves the engine being cut off).

Disadvantages: the risk of damaging your transmission is very real. Also, it does not save as much fuel as people think (if you drive with your engine off you ought to be shot).

Do not do it. I once did an article in the newspaper back in 2010, and you can read it here:http://www.autotalk.co.ke/neutral-is-it-overrated-as-a-gear/

**********

Hi,

Your article on fuel saving devices a few weeks back was spot on. I would like to get your opinion on a number of issues:

1. Is it illegal not to have a spare wheel for your car in Kenya?

2. If it is illegal, don’t you think we should have a clause exempting vehicles with run-flat tires like Toyota RAV4 sports and BMW X3 from having the spare wheel because, with such cars, the spare wheel is of no use?

3. Is it illegal for car dealers selling cars, whether imported second-hand or new, to sell cars without spare wheels in Kenya?

1. I am not sure, but it should be if it isn’t. Last week I promised one of my readers I will read the Traffic Act nicely and clear the air on what is what. I am yet to get a copy, the elections have everybody on edge and all I am getting is a curt “Wait!” from relevant sources. Watch this space though.

In addition, I was once stopped by traffic policemen who wanted to see my spare (the Starlet EP82 I mentioned once or twice before had just gotten into my hands), only for him to discover that the tyre and the rim were two separate entities. He asked what I would do in case I got a flat. I told him something about prayers, moving mountains and the power of positive thinking. He let me go.

Less than an hour later I got a puncture. To add to the irony, the rubber got shredded by the rim so that now I had TWO wheels whose tyres and rims were separate: the flat and the spare.

I have never been so stranded in my life (this was in Timboroa, at night). I have also never been so cold. I have also never been so happy to see a village mechanic (he oversaw the marriage ceremony between the rim and tyre of my spare).

2. Ah, but you see, run-flat tyres are not spares. There is a limit to how far and how fast you can go on a run-flat tyre. Typically its 80km and 80 km/h respectively. The faster you go, the less the distance it will stay put.

Then what? If you are far from civilisation, you will start thinking about prayers, moving mountains and the power of positive thinking to avoid panicking; then you will wish you had a spare and not a stupid run-flat.

3. It is not illegal, but there should be disclosure. I know abroad that is how it is: anyone selling a car is required to fully disclose any underlying defects or deficiencies so that the new owner does not break the law by proxy.

If you are sold a car, and the law requires you have a spare, a warning triangle and a fire extinguisher, it is uncouth for the seller not to advise you to get these things if they are missing from the car, otherwise you have no defence when stopped by the upholders of the law and you have none of them.

Some people (like me) buy a car and immediately drive long distances, provided there is oil in the engine and fuel in the tank. The seller should let you know that you need to acquire such and such.

This also applies to mechanical aspects. You may buy a car with worn suspension and understeer through the first roundabout you come across, wrecking your car.

Posted on

Yes, a Forester XT can beat a Lamborghini in a race, but…

Hi Baraza,

One of my friends who owns a Forester XT claims that, if fully stocked, the car stands a chance against a Lamborghini Gallardo LP-400 in a race. What’s your take on this?

Yes, there are races in which the Forester can beat a Lambo. Off-road races. Or a race to see who can carry the most people and the most luggage at a go without compromising on comfort.

Otherwise, if we are referring to racing as we know it, on tarmac and on a racetrack, or even a normal road, the Forester is a tree-stump compared to the Gallardo.

But the Forester, against its rivals (cross-over utilities), is a capable handler and is fast.

Hi Baraza,

I have always wanted to import a used car from the UK but friends have strongly discouraged me citing reliability issues. Is it true that cars from the UK are generally in poorer shape compared to their Japanese counterparts.

What I know is that it’s easier to get a manual transmission car from the UK — like the Mercedes C180 or Toyota RAV4 — which is my preferred choice of transmission unlike in Japan where most cars are autos nowadays. What’s your take on this?

The biggest problem with UK cars is rust. You see, way up in the North Atlantic where the UK lies, there is a part of the year that gets very cold.

Winter, it is called. The low temperatures create problems, especially for drivers. The snow on the ground creates a slippery surface on which it is extremely difficult to drive (unless your car is AWD).

Worse yet, something called black ice is created. Black ice is like wet glass.; it is a thin film of ice that forms on the road surface due to the freezing of the water on the surface (this does not even come from snow).

Here, not even AWD will help: if you try to drive on it you WILL crash. So how to deal with the black ice? Pour salt on it.

Salt is an impurity for water, so the freezing properties of water are disrupted, meaning that no matter how low the temperatures go, the water on the road will never freeze.

Having a salt solution covering the road surface makes the road more tractable, yes, but that salt solution sloshes into the various nooks and crannies underneath the car, and most of these gaps house iron or iron-based components.

Iron plus water equals rust, iron plus water plus salt equals rapid rust. Very rapid rusting. Need I continue?

Dear Baraza,

I just started reading your column a few weeks ago and I am wondering if you have compared the Nissan X-Trail to the Toyota Kluger 2.4S in the past editions. Which of these two SUVs would you prefer and why?

John

I prefer the X-Trail. It looks better, is more solid and feels robust, offers better space and you can buy a tropicalised version. Oh yeah, there is also a 280 hp GT.

Dear Baraza,

I am preparing to buy a Subaru Impreza. Could you please advise me on the advantages and differences of a Subaru Impreza 1500cc (2WD and 4WD) in terms of performance, durability, spares, and maintenance? What other alternatives should I consider?

There is no big difference between the two. Very small disparities exist in performance (the 4WD is marginally heavier, but you won’t notice), and maintenance, as far as the transmission is concerned, the 4WD is more complex to repair.

Alternatives are many: Toyota Corolla, Allion 1.5, Nissan B15, Bluebird, Mitsubishi Lancer, Honda Civic (if you can get one)… basically any small 1.5 litre saloon car fits the bill.

Hi Baraza,

There is this meter on the dashboard of my VW Polo that is scaled from 0 to 65 and is coloured red between 45 and 65. The needle moves as one accelerates and I always change gears before the needle reaches 30, which I presume is the middle. In the centre of the dial there is a scale which no one seems to understand; 1min/100. Please explain to me.

Karangi

That, sir, is called a tachometer, or a rev counter in simple terms, and it shows engine speed (the rate at which the engine crankshaft is spinning).

That is why the needle moves to higher numbers when you accelerate. Given the numbers you have quoted, I take it your car has a diesel engine (not that it matters here).

The label is actually 1/min X 100. So if the needle points to 30, it is 30/min X100, which comes to 3,000. So the engine is turning at 3,000 rpm (revolutions per minute).

The red zone should be avoided, because it is in this zone that engines blow, seize or start hydraulicking.

The tachometer is installed to help you avoid over-revving the engine, and in some instances to avoid straining it (when the revs dip too low). For professional or enthusiastic drivers, the tach’ is used to determine the maximum power and torque points of the engine speed and shift gears accordingly.

That is how race drivers set different “lap times” on tracks. The rest will be covered in something I am working on.

Hi Baraza,

I drive a Peugeot 406 that is currently consuming a lot of fuel. In addition, when driving in gear one, it makes jerking movements. The mechanic says that there is a fuel leak, that is, some gasket needs replacement. What are your thoughts?

Fuel leaks could explain the high consumption but not the jerking in first. Common causes of jerking in first gear (I take it the car has a manual transmission) are poor declutching technique, a worn out clutch kit and low fuel pressure in the injectors (first gear needs plenty of fuel), though the third option does not quite fit in here, it is just a theory.

Have the clutch system checked for fidelity in the release bearings.

Dear Baraza,

I want to upgrade my vehicle and I’m stuck on what to go for. I’m debating between 2005s BMW 530i, Audi A6 3.1-litre, Mercedes E320, the 2006 Lexus GS300 (Euro spec) or a Mark X with a 3-litre engine.

Yes, I know the Mark X feels out of place but I think its a very good looking car. What do you think is the best choice?

In addition, I’m trying to calculate the duty on these vehicles. Should I go with CRSP values or should I work with the conventional 76.5 per cent duty since the engines are quite huge?

In duty terms, either way the government will screw you. I cannot make a definite call on which one of the two calculations you should go for because I don’t know how much you have been asked for for these cars.

But know this: underquoting the vehicle’s price (CIF) will get you nowhere. The revenue authority has a minimum amount set for each class of car, so if you underquote, they will use their figure; if you overquote, well and good, they will still get your money anyways.

There is customs duty, excise duty, VAT (all these are calculated in compound form, one figure being used to derive the next) and some small amount for an IDF (Import Declaration Form).

Now to the cars: All the cars, except the A6, are available in RWD (an enthusiast’s dream). The Benz is classy, comfortable and handles well; the A6 has the best interior in the world but has a hard ride; the Lexus is a drug peddler’s transport and the detailing is a bit over-the-top (Lexus calls it good value for money, I call it vulgar); the BMW looks questionable but is best in performance; and the Mark X is cliche. Decide.

Hi JM,

I am in the UK and married to a Kenyan, so I am getting a Kenyan ID soon. I have been told I could import one vehicle into Kenya tax-free if it is for personal use. Is this correct?

Secondly, my cherished Mitsubishi Shogun is in tip top condition with everything working as it should, fully maintained and serviced to the highest degree, but it is a 1994 UK spec model.

Is there any way I could import this vehicle as I am aware there is a six-year block on imports, considering some of those I have seen are not as suitable for Kenyan roads as mine?

It is almost correct. You have to have owned the vehicle in question for a certain amount of time (grey area), then when selling it on, duty will have to be paid by the new owner.

The time cap is actually eight years, not six, but I think the above scenario (lengthy ownership in the land of emigration) also forms part of the list of exceptions.

This is a very grey area. I will have to consult with the relevant authorities for a concrete report, because all I have had are conflicting “expert” opinions from a variety of sources.

Hallo,

I was intrigued by your comment about the Prado being handful at 200km/h. Does it mean its very risky driving it at that speed or what? Please expound.

Samuel

Yes, that is what I meant. The Prado has an intrinsic instability courtesy of its off-road credentials (suspension and ride height), so winding one up to 200 km/h is gambling with the unforgiving laws of nature and physics.

Baraza,

Tell me, are there any advantages on fuel economy when driving a vehicle in tip-tronic mode?

Dr Ngure

There might be an advantage in fuel economy when driving in tip-tronic mode, courtesy of the ability to short-shift into a higher gear (shifting early, before the optimum rev level).

However, some tip-tronic systems override the driver’s instructions if the computer thinks it is wiser than him. Tip-tronic is mostly for performance driving. Switching from full automatic to tip-tronic can be done at will, even with the car in motion, after which, tapping the lever towards the plus sign (or using the steering mounted buttons) changes up while tapping it towards the minus sign changes down.

Mr Baraza,

I own a Toyota Vista 2000 model 1800cc. Recently, I noticed something peculiar on the fuel gauge; after I put in fuel worth Sh2,000, the gauge still read empty.

After driving to and from the office and while I was parking the car, the gauge suddenly shot to quarter tank. This has happened on a number of occasions.

I spoke to a mechanic who told me the gadget that measures the fuel level could be worn out and needs replacement. Kindly advise.

That is not a problem, it is a peculiarity with the Vista. I noted (and stated) this when I reviewed the Vista back in 2010 (check the archives for more on this car). One way of coping with it is turning off the car, waiting a full minute and then starting it again.

It should show an increase. No car will show an instantaneous increase in fuel levels on the gauge. This is because the fuel tank is slatted and thus the fuel takes time (and a bit of splashing) to spread itself evenly enough around the tank for the gauge sensor to get an accurate reading. Stop worrying.

Hello Baraza,
I’m a fan of diesel engines, and that’s why I bought a Mercedes Benz C220 CDI. What are the weaknesses of diesel engines compared to petrol ones?

I thought (hence the reason for liking diesel engines) that diesel engines have more power, especially in common rail versions. Is this true or should I be worried about my Merc?

Actually, petrol engines develop more power because they rev higher, though diesel engines are fast catching up owing to turbo-charger technology. What diesel engines have, in large amounts, is torque.

They are heavier than petrol engines and require more frequent servicing. Also, the injectors operate at very high pressure, so while in a petrol engine car running out of fuel simply means adding more and getting on your way, when the diesel injectors have no diesel to pump they are very easily damaged.

Staying on the same, diesel engines also need bleeding to be done before setting off to remove any air bubbles (vapour lock) in the fuel lines, which could also lead to injector damage.

The economy figures for a diesel engine are outstanding, though.

Posted on

Manual cars may offer more fuel economy than autos

Hi JM,
I have an auto 2002 Forester that I would say is quite economical. My wife bought a five-speed manual 2004 Forester that has nearly the same peak power but is far more economical in terms of fuel consumption.

While I spend a thousand bob to Thika and back to Nairobi, she will spend Sh800. This is something I have tested myself and I know it is not tuning because I take both to Subaru Kenya for diagnostics and service. So, is a manual vehicle more fuel friendly that an auto? And if yes, why?

Yes, and for two main reasons. First is a fact that a manual gearbox allows you to short-shift, that is shift up way earlier than an auto would, like at 1,700rpm from first to second.

With an auto, the computer decides when to shift up or down, so there is a tendency for these engines to operate at higher (and racier) rpms, thus pushing up the fuel consumption.

Second is the clutch. Unless the car has an electronically operated friction clutch, most autos tend to have a power sapping fluid clutch, also called a torque converter.

It does not transmit 100 per cent of the engine torque to the transmission; there is some slippage and thus losses at the clutch. These losses translate into less mechanical efficiency and hence higher fuel consumption.

—————-

Hi,
I wish to enquire about the Toyota Verossa. My friends tell me that I may have problems with it when it comes to spare parts and that I should go for Premio instead. Could you kindly advise me on this with respect to fuel consumption in both cars?

The Verossa and the Premio are not in the same class. Your friends should have referred to Mark II or Mark X, which are all similarly sized.

The Premio is a small, compact saloon with a very economical engine while the Verossa is a mid-sized semi-luxury saloon and may be performance-oriented. The bigger engines mean they cost more to fuel over a given distance compared to the Premio.

On a personal note, I do not like the Verossa’s looks. It featured prominently on my list of ugly cars.

—————-

Hi Baraza,
I am planning to buy a car in January but I am not sure what car I should go for. I will mostly require the car to run work-related errands within the CBD and occasionally outside Nairobi.

With the skyrocketing fuel prices, I am keen on a car that is not “thirsty” but I also do not want something that is small and too girly (IST, Vitz — no offence meant).

I have in mind a Premio, Allion, NZE, Avensis, or a Nissan Primera. I am also torn between buying the car locally (one that has not been used on Kenyan roads) and importing. Kindly advise.

You want a small car? You want economy? And you want something not too girly? And, in the name of nation-building, you also want a locally sold unit? Forget Allion, forget Premio, forget NZE. There is a car that fits the bill exactly, though — Maruti Omni.

It is dirt cheap, even brand-new, it is small but handy (seeing as to how it is a van), and that puny 800cc engine will burn less petrol than anything else on the road, other than a motorcycle.

————-

Hi Baraza,
On the question about the handbrake sign, highlighted here some time back, it happened to my old model Ipsum too. When the handbrake was disengaged, the light would stay on. When I did a diagnosis, I found that the problem was the brake fluid lid.

Thanks for the heads up, but the lady said performance was also compromised, so my thinking was that the handbrake itself was increasing the load on the engine.

—————-

Hi
I have a 2002 Toyota Vista 4WD with a D-4 VVT-i 2000cc engine. The engine light would go on and off for a while, then stay off for months. I did a diagnosis that yielded “p1653 SCV circuit motor”.

I changed the oxygen sensor and the plugs and cleaned all the speed sensors at the wheels, but there was no improvement.

Now, the car misfires in the morning and produces smoke before attaining the operating temperature. I have also realised its consumption has gone up. I was advised by my mechanic to use synthetic oil for service. What could be the problem and where can I get help?

Mwangi

SCV is the swirl control valve and I think it needs replacing. This is one of the weak points of a D-4 engine. I do not know anybody who can open one up and put it back together. Pole.

————–

Hallo Baraza,

I drive an automatic 1.6 litre 2002 VW Golf Mark 4 (station wagon). Unfortunately, I have never driven other cars so whenever people ask me about its consumption compared to other vehicles, I am at a loss. Could you please clarify or provide insight into the following issues.

1. What, in your view, is the normal consumption in km/litre for a 1600 cc vehicle (whether Mitsubishi, VW, or Toyota) in peak traffic (Nairobi situation) and on the highway?

2. When I suddenly slow down, like when approaching a bump or something is crossing the road, accelerating afterwards is problematic, the vehicle behaves as if it is in neutral gear. But if you step on the acceleration pad once then release and then step on it again, it picks up well. Please unravel this for me.

3. When driving, mainly on the highway, at gears three to five, should the rev indicator settle at, say, less than 2,000? How should the rev counter ideally behave when driving? Does the consumption of the vehicle change when the rev counter is higher?

Finally, it may be a good idea for you to lead a forum for motorists to exchange experiences. For instance, you can organise a forum for Mitsubishi Galant owners on where they physically meet and share experiences such as how they rectified a particular problem.

Tom

1. In traffic, expect anywhere between five and nine kilometres per litre, depending on the severity of the gridlock. On the highway, anything from 14 kpl upwards is possible, with as much as 24 kpl for a diesel engine of that size.

2. Is your car automatic? If so, then the gearbox is what we call “lethargic” or slow thinking; it takes some time before it realises that it should have geared down by that point. If not, another suspicion could be a jamming throttle pedal, so much so that the first gentle prod does nothing, so releasing and depressing it again resolves the jam, allowing it to move as it should. Just a theory.

3. Ignore the rev counter. How does the car feel and sound? If it stutters, judders, or sounds like it is about to stall, the revs are too low or the road speed is too low for that gear and you should downshift. If the engine sounds belligerent, high strung, “shouty”, or if the needle points towards the red line, shift up or ease off the throttle, you are almost over-revving the car. And yes, at higher rpms (4,000 plus), the fuel consumption is a little bit higher than at mid-level revs (2000-3500 rpm).

Finally, visit www.carbaraza.com to start a discussion topic — physical meetings will call for a venue, an announcement and, knowing Africans, refreshments will be expected. In other words, non-refundable costs. So I prefer the Internet.

————–

Hi JM,

I am interested in purchasing a mini-van and I am inclined towards a Nissan Serena 1990cc, but everyone I know advises that I should get the Noah instead. I am sorry, but I think Toyotas are a bit over-rated. Would you kindly compare the two vehicles in terms of consumption, road handling, parts, and anything else that you may find useful, especially for female drivers?

Christabellah.

Yeah, the people’s faith and belief in Toyotas is damn near religious in intensity, and for good reason. Count how many cars you see and express the number of Toyotas in that group as a percentage and you will see what I am talking about.

The Serena, if we are to go by reputation, has an ugly ancestry — one of the earlier models (late ’90s) earned the dubious honour of being the slowest accelerating new car on sale (at the time), taking a calendar-filling 19 seconds to clock 100 km/h from rest.

Later versions are, of course, better than that, but the damage has already been done. There is a new version out (2012), but I doubt this is the car you intend to buy.

Consumption should be broadly similar but the Serena may edge the Toyota out slightly, but nothing that cannot be corrected with a small adjustment in driving attitude.

Handling is a mostly redundant characteristic in vans (I do not see you oversteering a Serena on purpose) but maybe the Toyota takes it here.

Parts and service also go to the Toyota; there are plenty around, so mechanics have been practising a lot and dealers bring in spares in droves because of the ready market.

So, against my better judgement, I would say go for the Toyota if you want a cautious approach. Go for the Serena if you have a pioneering spirit; who knows, you might start a fad like someone did with the Galant some years back.

—————–

Hi Baraza,
I am planning to buy a Toyota Cami. Is it friendly to a low -lass earner and does it have different ccs? What are its general advantages and disadvantages? Where would be the best place to buy one?

It is very friendly to a low-class earner — cheap to buy, cheap to run, and will rarely break down (it is also called Daihatsu Terios). I know it is 1300cc, but there could be a 1.5 somewhere in the line-up.

Advantages: It is small and, therefore, easy to park and not too thirsty. It can also do 85 per cent of the off-road tricks that a Land Rover Defender can. Disadvantages: It is bloody uncomfortable, 100 km/h plus on the highway is more dangerous and nerve-wracking than an afternoon as a matador, and the small size means you will be getting pretty intimate with your passengers.

Posted on

Avoid running on ‘E’ all the time, just fill up

Hi Baraza,

I have a well-maintained Mitsubishi Lancer Cedia, 1500cc, 2003 model. I often drive it when the low-fuel light is on and the car covers many kilometres before refuelling.

What are the implications of driving a car when this light is on for a long period? Another issue is that, whenever, I top up with fuel worth about Sh500, the light goes on immediately, even before I am out of the petrol station. Why? How effective is this vehicle in terms of fuel consumption?

I would also like you to generally comment about Mitsubishi Lancers as I have found this car to be much nicer compared to the Subaru Legacy I had before.

Frederick.

How many kilometres does your Lancer cover from the moment the light comes on?

If it is more than 100, then you might have a special car in your care: either the fuel consumption is extraordinary or the electricals are playing with your mind.

The biggest implication for running a car with the fuel light constantly on is that you might run out of fuel far from a filling station and you would go to a lot of trouble getting it running again.

Most cars indicate ‘empty’ or have the light shining when there is about five to 10 litres of fuel remaining.

So, if your tank was very nearly empty (say, had less than 100ml of petrol left) and you put in Sh500 worth of fuel (given that petrol is going for about Sh120 a litre, that is about four litres of fuel ), then what you have in your tank is still below the empty mark. Fill your tank if you can.

The Cedia is very economical, even in the 1.5 litre form, especially if the car has a GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection, similar to D4 in Toyota) engine, but to harness the maximum effect from GDI, maintain steady throttle openings (a light constant pressure on the accelerator) as the GDI system reverts to the normal stoichiometric charge ratio whenever the throttle opening is adjusted.

Let me get my hands on a Cedia and I will definitely give you something worth reading.

—————-

Hi Baraza,

Let us separate two warring factions here: the D4 engine haters (a larger group) and those who praise it.

First things first; is the D4 engine different from a VVT-i one? Or, if I may shoot more straight, can D4 technology be used in a VVT-i engine?

I have heard things that make touching the engine sinful — it is significantly thirstier than the others and requires you to talk to the HR department for a loan to repair it once it goes nuts.

Please clarify whether all these things are true.

Finally, please confirm whether the new car models, specifically the Toyota Premio and the RAV4, can come with the D4 engine.

And is it possible for the D4 label not to appear on the engine cover?

Nyaga.

The D4 technology was supposed to be the motoring industry’s second-coming, but Toyota rushed it and. because of that, it does have a few weaknesses. It is my understanding that they are back to the drawing board over this.

D4 and VVT-i are two different technologies: one concerns fuel delivery (D4, Direct Injection 4-stroke cycle) while the other concerns valve timing (VVT-i, variable valve timing with intelligence). It is, therefore, possible to have both on the same engine.

Why would a D4 engine be thirstier than others?

The technology is supposed to improve fuel consumption, not make it worse. I have driven some cars (Toyota Vista the most) with D4 and if carefully driven, the 1.8 litre would return astonishing mileage.

Toyota Premios and RAV4s do come with D4 engines for some trim levels.

Most D4-equipped cars have the logo plastered on the engine cover. I have not seen one that did not, but this is not to say that it is impossible. I just have not seen one yet.

—————–

Hi Baraza,

I always look forward to reading your articles even though I do not have a car yet. However, I’m planning to buy one in January and I needed you advice.

There is this car I see, Toyota Lexus/Altezza salon. I have not seen many on our roads, though, but I admire its aesthetics and I’m planning to acquire one.

Please advise me on its performance, engine size, handling, fuel consumption, speed, and spare parts availability. Your advice will be much appreciated.

First off, there is no such thing as a Toyota Lexus. Those are two different brands under the same umbrella. You either have a Toyota or you have a Lexus.

The car you are referring to is the Toyota Altezza/Lexus IS 200. Although you claim not to have seen many on our roads, believe me they are there, and in increasing numbers.

Answering your queries in order of presentation: damn-near excellent (in the 3 Series league, possibly faster); it is a 2.0 litre (the IS 250 that is strictly USDM is a 2.5); the handling is sublime, courtesy of the rear drive chassis; fuel consumption is passable under normal driving conditions, but it gets a bit thirsty when pushed; it is fast with good acceleration (clocks 100 km/h in less than 9 seconds); I am not too sure about spares but take heart in the fact that, with increasing numbers, their availability will improve.

—————-

Hi Baraza,

I am interested in purchasing a Mitsubishi Pajero. I have already identified one, a 1998 Inter-cooler Turbo which looks fairly good and is going for Sh700,000. What do you think, is the price fair? How come a Toyota Landcruiser of the same age goes for almost double this price?

For a Pajero of this age and make, what mechanical problems are likely to plague it? Are spare parts available and is it a guzzler?

Robert

The biggest issue would be poor diesel combustion accompanied by a lack of power, so check for a smoky exhaust.

A good service/overhaul should put it back in order. Also, take it to a specialist to have the turbo looked at since most people do not know how to maintain turbodiesel cars.

It is not what you would call a guzzler, given its size and class. The price seems a bit optimistic but a thorough check should reveal whether or not you are going to pay more when fixing it.

Toyota SUVs are generally expensive to begin with, and their reputation for hardiness and reliability means they will not lose value fast.

I know of Landcruisers from the late 1990s that still have an asking price well north of Sh2.5 million.

—————-

Dear Baraza,

I have two issues I need your wise counsel on:

1. We own a Toyota Noah 2000 model, 2184 cc, diesel. The car’s timing belt broke about four weeks ago. We got a mechanic to fix it and that is when the woes started. At first, he could not get the part and had to have it imported. Later the sleeves and pistons had to be replaced. The car is now working but it is smoking like a jiko, has a hard start, and shakes when idling. What could the mechanic have done wrong and how can we correct this? Is it worth it to continue fixing this engine or should we jut buy a new one? The mechanic reckons that the smoking will go away after three days.

2. If options run out for us, we are thinking of getting a new car but would like your advice on imports from Britain as compared to Japan. What would you recommend for a family of four? We would like a small 4×4 that can go to shags and also do local running in town. I had thought of a Land Rover Freelander but have no idea how the car performs. Your advice will be highly appreciated.

The smoking means a lot of things could be wrong. The valve seals, the piston rings, or even the entire cylinder head could be leaking. The hard start could be caused by faulty electricals or poor fuel delivery, and the shaking during idle means that one or more of your spark plugs could be giving up. That also ties in with the hard start.

It might be easier to just get a new engine, especially nowadays when a new one costs as little as Sh30,000 (expect to pay up to Sh70,000 for your Noah engine, but it will be a good investment in the long run). And next time, go to a proper garage that has a reputation to stake if they ruin your car.

The Freelander is good, but get a late model first-generation car, preferably diesel. The very first Freelander cars off the assembly line had a litany of problems that you do not want to deal with, believe me.

Or you could try the Nissan X-Trail, also in diesel, although even the petrol is not so bad. Avoid automatic for the X-Trail if you can. RAV4s are expensive and a touch thirstier than the X-Trail, while the iO is delicate and wobbly on the highway.

I have not visited the import scene that much to make a declaration which is better between Britain and Japan, but, as a personal preference, I would go Jap.

——————

Hi Baraza,

I have a Toyota Premio D4 manufactured in 2000. The body of the car and the mechanicals are as good as new.

However, while idling, the rev sometimes just shoots up even to 2000 without any obvious cause, hence seriously increasing fuel consumption. The interesting thing is that on some days it returns to normal by itself.

My mechanic appears lost on this. I have replaced the whole throttle body, including the sensors, but there is still no change. One mechanic thought there is a damaged pipe that sucks in air but he cannot say which one. I have tried a number of reputable garages but none can tell where the problem lies, but they insist there is a sensor somewhere with a problem.

Kindly let me know if there is a mechanic who can sort it out even if privately. I know D4 engines have issues but I believe there must be a way out.

Remove the IAC (idle air control) valve and clean it then put it back. Disconnect the battery for about five minutes to try and flush the ECU memory (if possible), but first try and use a scan tool (OBD II device).

Other causes can include: vacuum leaks, a build-up of contaminates obstructing movement of the IAC valve, a sticking or binding EGR valve or throttle linkage, an improperly adjusted or a sticking throttle position sensor, AC leakage from the alternator into the electrical system, fuel injector leakage, the evaporative control system, positive crankcase ventilation system, air leaks into the intake system, exhaust system leaks or a restriction, a contaminated oxygen sensor or an erratic sensor signal, and other related sensors.

—————–

Hi Baraza

I would like to invest in the matatu business here in Kenya but I do not know which bus to choose. I want a 51-seater, either Isuzu FRR, Nissan MKB 210, or Mitsubishi. I am looking at durability, fuel economy, and ease of maintenance.

I have heard from a number of people that Isuzu is durable and easy to maintain while the Nissan is not that durable.

I also do not understand why the Isuzu FRR has a bigger engine (8200cc) than the Nissan MK210 (6900cc), yet the two vehicles yield the same horse power.

Does the Isuzu consume more fuel due to the bigger engine? Also, why is FH the most popular and fastest selling truck in Kenya?

Mwangi.

The MKB 210 is turbocharged and intercooled, that is why it yields almost the same power as the FRR (180 hp vs 187). The FH is popular due to its power (more than both MKB and FRR, at about 215 hp) and durability (the vehicle is quite hardy).

I am not sure about their fuel consumption yet, I will check with some industry players and get back to you.

————–

Hi,

I have a few questions concerning my Lexus RX330.

First, how can I change the language settings on the DVD screen, and where is the control DVD located?

The other problem is that when I attain speeds of between 60 to 80 kph, it vibrates, but when I stop accelerating it stops. I have tried all manner of wheel balancing and alignment but in vain.

Lastly, is there a DVD with Kenyan maps and can it work in my car? I hear something about PAL and NTSC, but I’m not familiar with these. Please help.

A tuning outfit called Auto Art says they can do Japanese-English translations for those telematics systems. Find them and ask. I do not know where the control DVD is located (or what it is, for that matter).

The vibrating could be caused by worn out engine or transmission mounts. Lexus were known to have installed active engine mounts on some cars (these mounts vibrate at the same frequency but half a wavelength out of sync with the engine vibration itself to cancel out the engine vibrations, which is why Lexus cars are so smooth).

I do not know who has the DVD with Kenyan maps, but I have seen cars with Nairobi sat-nav, and CMC boast that their Discovery 4 has a Kenyan road map sat-nav that includes game parks.

—————

Dear Baraza,

I live in the UK and read your article touching on V-Power fuel and I just wanted to make a comment.

I use a B6 VW Passat diesel and was recently introduced to V-Power diesel by Shell.

This is what I noticed: V-Power diesel is made from a different base stock. Instead of being refined from crude, a percentage will consist of liquified gas and is meant to be a “purer” fuel with cleaner burning. Whether it is worth the price premium is a point for endless discussion.

For what it is worth, I have tried every type of diesel fuel here (BP Ultimate Diesel, Total Excelium) plus a range of additives, and none has made any measurable, repeatable difference in performance or economy. All diesel fuel on sale from reputable UK forecourts meets or exceeds the EN590 standard that car manufacturers specify.

Musau.

Thank you Musau. When V-Power was first introduced back here in the motherland, Shell were careful to point out that it will not turn your Corolla estate into a Ferrari (in spite of using images of Ferrari cars to popularise the fuel).

It is more of a cleaning agent than a high-power output fuel. With the increased octane rating, it can be used in performance cars with high compression engines.

It will not, repeat NOT, increase the performance of your car or the fuel economy, but it will clean the engine of deposits in and around the combustion chamber.

—————

Hi Baraza,

I have a Subaru Forester 2003 Turbo. The turbo makes a whining sound at 5,000rpm while the boost has a slight delay. The sound can be heard from the cockpit. I have checked all the hoses. Is the turbo going? I am using V-Power and fully synthetic oil (Quartz 9000).

The car could be suffering from boost leak, which means that somewhere in the turbo or intake, there is an area where the air (boost) is escaping.

Typically, a boost leak is caused by a loose or bad seal or cracked housing. When there is a boost leak, the turbo will be able to generate boost, but it may not be able to hold it at a constant level, and pressure will drop off proportionally to the size of the leak.

The funny whining noise is a cyclic noise caused by unstable compressor operating conditions known as compressor surge.

This aerodynamic instability is the most noticeable during a rapid lift of the throttle following operation at full boost, which it may have in your case since you talk of running at 5,000rpm.

—————

Hi,

I have this car that I call an animal because I was driving on a highway and did not realise that I was doing 160km/h. It is an 1800cc Fielder S. Kindly advise on the most fuel-economic speed on highways.

I also wish to know whether switching the lever to neutral and back in attempt to save fuel, in an auto, can cause damage to the gearbox. Thanks.

The most economical speed depends mostly on engine capacity, but it lies between 90 km/h for small-engine cars and about 125–130 km/h for cars with large engines (3.5 litre plus). Shave off about 20 km/h each for diesel powered cars. You, however, need to have your windows shut and keep a steady throttle foot.

I had done an article on driving in neutral and declared it redundant in the face of current technology.

You are better off leaving the car in gear and getting off the throttle completely when going downhill.

Driving in neutral does not damage the gearbox but there is a big risk of you getting the shift wrong, like if you accidentally bump the lever up into R instead of down into D.

——————–

Hi JM,

Your recent comments on the value of spacers needs a reply. The level of ground clearance of a vehicle when loaded is a vital and too-often-ignored factor when making a purchase. Many imported vehicles have soft suspensions and, even with small loads, cannot negotiate the ill-designed speed bumps without making contact.

While spacers may reduce the visual appearance of your favourite vehicle, it may be better for you to get something more practical for everyday use.

During the days of the 305, 404, and 504, the Peugeot factory spent a day every three or four months making these models for the African market with over 100 modifications, which included stiffer springs and increased ground clearance, and the 305 I owned never grounded when loaded.

The rules on importation of cars should be changed to include an established minimum ground clearance when loaded with the recommended load.

Muckle.

Thank you so much, Muckle. I did discuss tropicalisation and the import market in my first two articles of 2011, but, as has become the norm, accusations of being on the payroll of some local franchise flew left and right. It is difficult to help people when they do not want to be helped.

That was the beauty of the Peugeot cars of yore: they were built to a standard and the local driving conditions were taken into consideration.

If it was up to me, I would turn the import market into a forbidding venture for all but the most determined. It is time to get people back into proper cars and have them stop complaining about ruined suspensions, incompatible fuel systems, and other such problems.

—————

Dear Sir/Madam,

Recently, I came across an article on toxic cars from Japan. It seems that following the last nuclear disaster in Japan, unscrupulous used-car dealers and exporters are playing around with re-registration papers and processes in order to sell and export cars that are unsuitable for use, cars condemned by the Japanese government as having too high a radiation reading, hence unfit for use.

I do believe our “tough” business men and women will find a way of exporting these condemned units to unsuspecting consumers in Kenya and wherever RHD cars are used. If I recall correctly, after the Chernobyl nuclear fall-out, some pints of condemned milk did find their way into the local market.

Daniel.

Dear Sir/Madam? Seriously? I do not want to sound like a pompous, narcissistic, self-centred person here, but did you not see that the picture in the paper was that of a man?

That aside, you seem to be on to something here. If our government was serious, they would acquire a set of Geiger-Muller tubes and deploy them at the port to intercept any radioactive material that would otherwise be passed to the mwananchi.

Posted on

Car clinic: expert answers to your motoring woes

I’m in the process of acquiring a used car. I have realised that I can get a nice Mitsubishi, Mazda or Subaru for about Sh400,000, but the same quality of Toyota costs almost Sh600,000.

However, I’ve been advised that these cheaper cars have serious problems when it comes to spare parts, and that they consume a lot of fuel even when their engines have low ratings.

I have had two Toyotas in the past and though their spare parts are easily available and cheap, one often runs the risk of buying fakes, which raises the cost of maintaining the car.

I have especially fallen for the Mitsubishi, either Lancer, Cedia or Galant. I will use the car to go to work daily, a round trip of about 32 km on a rough road. What’s the truth about the availability and cost of their spares as well as fuel consumption?

Njeru.

——————

Hello Njeru,

I keep saying over and over that though some cars consume more fuel than others generally, the biggest deciding factor is one’s own driving style. The spares cannot stay rare forever, especially given the abundance of Cedia/Lancer cars on the road.

As for fakes, I cannot risk giving you a definite answer right now without proper research; I might be forced to eat my words tomorrow.

I am yet to see a small Japanese car grounded on account of spares. The problem is usually money (or the lack thereof) on the owner’s part.

The spares themselves may cost more than equivalent Toyota parts, but if you take good care of your car, what you will need to replace are universal sundries like brakes, tyres, wipers and other small things, which means it will cost no more to maintain a Lancer/Cedia than it would a Toyota.

And, no, these cars are not thirsty, at all. In fact you could drive them as carelessly as you wanted and you still would not feel the pinch felt by someone running a petrol engine SUV.

———————

Dear Mr Baraza,

I have a Toyota Vista saloon with a 1800cc VVT-i engine whose steering wheel shakes when speeding at 140km/h. What could be causing this?

I’m selling this car and going for a bigger one. My options are Mercedes Benz 2010 E300CDi, 2004 S320CDi or 2004 BMW 520i.

My main concern is fuel consumption and maintenance costs. I’m told that diesel engines, especially for the S320CDi model, may not be compatible with our kind of diesel and such cars are made for European countries, yet I see them on our roads.

Kindly advise.

David Malonza

———————–

Hello Malonza,

The steering shaking at 140 km/h could be due to bad alignment or unbalanced wheels, especially at the front.

I did not experience that kind of thing with the Vista I wrote about (and that was one Vista I drove quite extensively).

Just wondering: did you mean the E300 CGI by any chance, because I doubt there is a 2010 300 CDI. I know of an E320 CDI.

One is petrol-powered (the former-CGI), the other one (the latter) diesel. If you can afford a 2010 E-Class Benz, why would you want to plump for a 2004 5-Series, instead of a 2009 or 2010?

Anyway, that is not for me to judge. What I would advise you is this: step carefully around Mercedes cars, especially those with diesel power.

And BMW cars have far superior dynamic abilities. For sheer pose-worthiness, go for the S320 (if you can avoid the diesel, even better).

—————–

Hello Baraza,

As a WRX owner, it was of interest to find out that you would prefer the Evo to the WRX, even with the Evo’s limitations. Is it that the WRX has more serious limitations than the Evo?

Muriithi

—————-

Hello Muriithi,

Fear not, one man’s meat and all that. Actually the Impreza STi has consistently beaten the Evolution in terms of torque and outright performance (especially in-gear acceleration), but I would still go for the Evo because all those computers (AYC, ACD, AWC and so on) make the car handle sharply and zero-counter driving is easy (four wheel drifting).

But with the two latest models (Evo X vs 2010 Impreza), I think the Evo finally outdoes the Soob in everything. When I finally lay my hands on these two I will definitely let you people know what’s up.

——————

Dear Baraza,

I am about to buy a car and a German make is my preference for reasons of stability, power and durability. My first option (within my range of budget) is a VW Golf 2005 model.

My brothers, however, insist that a BMW 318i or a Merc C-200 Kompressor are a better bet since they will cost me about the same to purchase and a VW will be more expensive in the long run in terms of parts, maintenance and consumption.

Apparently, VW parts are mostly only available at CMC. Kindly help me unravel these issues.

Grace.

—————

What your friends tell you about the spares and CMC might be true but the rest is horse manure. Consumption will depend on how and where you drive, as will maintenance.

Parts will vary, but a little bird once told me that the exhaust system of a 3-Series goes for about Sh300,000, that is Kenya shillings and not Zimbabwean dollars (but I don’t know how true this is). Try and top that with a Golf.

Maybe your brothers just want a prestigious brand of car in the family. An ex-Singapore Benz will cause you nothing but grief, and the 3 has minimal ground clearance.

It is up to you to make the call but the choice in this instance is between the 3 (class leader, outstanding dynamics, excellent performance and BMW reliability) and the VW (another class leader, in the hatchback world, good dynamics and more practical than the other two).

————-

Hi Baraza,

I’m interested in buying the older model Pajero (the one just before the new one currently in the market).

Would you recommend it? If so, diesel or petrol? How is its consumption? Manual or auto? What other issues do I need to know about?

Henry.

———————

Hello,

Diesel/Petrol: Depends on where you intend to use it and how deep your pockets are. For exclusive on-road use, the petrol is better, but if you have the finance to keep it running.

If you will venture off-road, the torque offered by the 3.2 diesel is awesome and better than most rivals. Consumption: Stratospheric for the 3.5 litre petrol, and I wonder why they still do not offer a V8.

The diesel is okay, but it is still outclassed by the BMW X5, ML 270 CDI and Landcruiser Prado. Manual/Auto: Depends on how deft you are with your left foot, but I’d choose the manual.

Better performance (marginally), better economy (marginally) and the freedom to choose your own gears.

Any other issues? Yes. The car is outdated by now. And if you intend to go off-road, the body kit will be an inhibiting factor, as will the long rear overhang and long wheelbase.

But it is quite comfortable and very capable on-road. A good used buy.

——————–

Hi Baraza,

I recently bought a Nissan X-Trail, 2007 2.2 Turbo Diesel. The car runs smoothly but it emits a lot of black smoke from the exhaust when trying to pick speed on the highway and has no power when climbing hills.

I tried getting advice from DT Dobie to no avail (this a local vehicle bought from them by the previous owner).

I hear it’s a common problem with the 2.2 Turbo Diesel X-Trails. Please advise on what you think could be the problem.

Really Frustrated X-Trail Owner

—————————

Sorry, Mr Frustrated,

The problem could lie in the quality of diesel being fed to the engine: if it has been corrupted in any way (typically by adding a dash of paraffin), black smoke will be the order of the day for not just the X-trail, but generally any diesel engine.

I’m yet to establish if this problem is endemic to X-Trails, especially the Mark II versions.

Posted on

Toyota beats them all when it comes to reliability in the 4X4 category

Hello,

I work and live in the rural area, so I deal with a lot of rough roads, especially during the wet season.

Please recommend a good 4WD with a VVTi engine (diesel or petrol) and has good clearance. Other than Prados, what other makes would you recommend?

——————————–

Hi,

The moment you say VVTi, you limit yourself to Toyotas. But, anyway, any fully-fledged 4WD SUV will do the job.

I’m guessing you do not want a full-size SUV (Landcruiser 100 or 200, the “VX” or a Nissan Patrol), so you can have a Nissan Terrano, a Mitsubishi Pajero (a good choice, actually, in terms of comfort and ability), maybe a Land Rover Defender if you do not mind the hedonism of an Eastern European prison cell, a Land Rover Discovery if your pockets go deeper than mine, Isuzu Trooper… the list is endless.

I would, however, advise you to stick to Toyotas, especially if you can get your hands on one made in the mid to late 1990s.

I assume now that you operate from the backwoods, reliability and ease of repair should be top on your list after the very obvious off-road capability.

If you have, say, a Discovery, what would you do when the air-suspension goes phut and you are a million miles from anywhere?
Try the J70 Toyota.

It might be a bit too geometrical in shape, and carrying milk in it might see you change your business to sales of cheese and ghee, but, as cars go, it is unbreakable and will go anywhere.

The J90 Prado is also an option, with a bit more comfort added to the equation, but anything newer than that and you will be gambling with expensive repair jobs.

Choose wisely.

——————

Hello Baraza,

My car smells of petrol after going six kilometres. What could be the problem? I service the car regularly.

Lorine

——————

Hi Lorine,

Maybe you have a petrol can inside the car with you? What happens beyond six kilometers?

Anyway, it could be one of many problems: leaking fuel lines, a loose air cleaner connection, a loose fuel filter, plugs that are not firing properly…. I need more symptoms for a more definite answer.

——————

No, I do not keep containers in the car. Three days ago, it stalled. I thought the battery was down so we ‘jacked’ the car.

It went for about two metres then stopped, showing the battery, engine and ABS signs on the dashboard.

The mechanic seems not to know what the problem is. The petrol fumes are now so strong that you can smell them from outside.

The car is a Toyota Vista with a D4 engine, which people have been telling me is problematic.

Please elaborate on the engine and its maintenance.

——————

Lorine,

You jacked the car? Do you realise that you have just told me that you stole the car? Did you mean you jacked it up, or jump-started it?

Displaying all those notifications on the dashborad is normal. When starting a car, the moment the key reaches the “ON” position, all the dashboard graphics come on.

They then go off when the key reaches “START” and stay off when the engine is running (unless the car really has all those problems).

When a car stalls, all those lights come on (because the key is in the “ON” position but the engine is off).

I think I can now presume what your problem is. One of your fuel connections is leaking badly, as I had approximated earlier.

The only marriage between a strong petrol smell and a stalling car is a compromised/breached fuel system: you are fuelling the car, but the fossil fuels seem to go back to the ground rather than finding their way into your cylinders.

I cannot say for sure that this problem is connected to the D4 characteristic, but I do know D4s have problems.

Tell your mechanics to check the connections between the fuel lines feeding the fuel filter, the ones from the filter to the throttle body and at the throttle body itself.

If they don’t know what a throttle body is, it is the chunk of metal at the top of the engine into which air is fed from the air cleaner, and the origin of the injectors.

All the best.

——————

Hello Baraza,

I own a Toyota FunCargo, 2003 model and thus relatively new. Every time I drive on a highway and do above 100km/h, it starts vibrating, literally affecting the entire car.

I have not sought advice from a mechanic because I wanted to consult a specialist first.

Please advise.

Regards,

Edwin M Kihara.

——————

Hello Edwin,

Your FunCargo could be suffering from one of these: the wheels need balancing or one of them is loose and needs tightening. Check the alignment also, but I doubt if this is it.

——————

Hi Baraza,

I have recently imported a Toyota Wish, manufactured in 2004, and just want to know if there is anything in particular to look out for with this model.

Also, mine does not come with a CD-DVD player/TV (as is usual with the more recent models), and would like to know if you can suggest a good and honest person who can install these for me at a pocket-friendly price.

I am also on the quest for a good and honest mechanic based in Nairobi. Female car owners out there know what I’m talking about.

We are charged double or triple the price for some of the services provided to us by unscrupulous and unprofessional mechanics.

Pamela,
Nairobi.

——————

Hello Pamela,

About your Wish lacking CD/DVD, maybe the very first owner (the one who bought it in 2004) did not specify these on his/her vehicle.

But in case they did, these things get stolen at the port in Mombasa. A while back, it was almost impossible to get a second-hand import with the stereo/TV intact.

Most aftermarket tuners/modifiers install these entertainment kits. The most experienced are of course the ones who do matatus, but they might charge you matatu prices and you might have to join a queue.

One way of ensuring honesty might be a bit tiresome: buy the kit yourself and then ask what the installation labour cost is. Theft and dishonesty typically occur at the point of purchase of the kits you seek.

As for the mechanics, there are no guarantees unless you enter yourself into a crash course in motor vehicle basics.

For now, find a trustworthy male friend who knows one or two things about cars and have him accompany you to the garage, or better yet, let him take the car to the mechanics. Several of my lady friends do this with me, and I think it works.

All the best.

——————

Hello,

I drive a Toyota Mark II Regalia, old model (KAY XXX). I took it for an engine wash and it appears some sensitive sensors got in contact with water because it is now too slow to accelerate.

My question is: are there known dangers associated with engine washes? If yes, how can they be avoided? Thanks a lot for the informative column.

Jackson,
Mombasa.

——————

To be honest, Sir, I think this is becoming a problem of epidemic proportions, because similar complaints are coming thick and fast from other readers.

Yes, water might have got into the electronics. And yes, it is rectifiable either lizard-style or hairdresser-style.

The lizard style involves parking your car in the sun with the bonnet open for some hours (not 100 per cent effective, bad for your paint job and the car will be uncomfortable inside when you finally pick it up).

The hairdresser style involves getting a blow drier and applying it to the areas you suspect the water might have got into (logistically tricky: most blow dries have short cords, and it is also embarrassing for a man to be seen using a typically female electronic device on his car).

Do this: Perform the engine wash yourself, because it seems like most car wash outfits out there are putting drivers into difficulties.

Engine wash is not the same as body wash where copious volumes of water and detergent are needed to acquire a gleam.

A wet rag, meticulously used, should clean your engine and spare your car future hiccups.

——————

Dear Baraza,

I drive a Nissan Sunny B15, 2001 model, that I imported three years ago. My agony started when the original front shocks got worn out.

All other shocks I have fitted hardly last three months. We even replaced the front coil springs with “tougher” ones but this has made little difference in prolonging the lifespan. The bushes are alright.

The car is only driven by me, covers a distance of six kilometres daily (Ngara to Parklands) and occasional trips upcountry.

It covers on average 600 kilometres a month and is carefully driven. The rest of the systems are okay (engine, electrical, steering, braking, transmission etc).

Is this a common problem with this model? What would you recommend?

Sincerely,
Daniel.

——————

One common mistake people make is replacing the springs and shocks but forgetting to change the mounts too.

This tends to be counterproductive: it is like washing one sleeve of a dirty shirt, or replacing one worn out shoe in a pair.

The suspension problem could be typical of B15, but I do not see how a drive from Ngara to Parklands and back would warrant a suspension change. Maybe the mechanics are short-changing you; I don’t know.

My advice towards addressing this problem will sound harsh and generate heat among some circles: maybe it’s time we started paying more attention to locally franchised cars, even when buying second-hand.

They have the advantage of having dealer support and in some cases you might even get a car with an outstanding warranty, which will be a relief to you, your bank manager and your dependants.

When I discussed tropicalisation, I was disparaged as a minion for the local outlets, but now it seems a good number of readers are facing complications from “new” imports.

Maybe the chicken have come home to roost?

——————

Hello Mr Baraza,

My Nissan Sylphy N16 does not engage the reverse gear after travelling for a distance.

It however has no problem in the morning or after parking for more than two hours. What could be the problem?

Thanks, Isaac.

——————

Hello Sir,

Is it manual or auto? Either way, it looks like you will have to face the music and have the gearbox dropped to the ground for further investigation. Take it from me, it is not an experience you will enjoy.

Have them check the linkage (on either transmission type) first before disassembling the gearbox.

If the linkage is intact, for the automatic have the electrical systems also checked (with the manual just go straight to disassembly). If the electricals are fine, well, take the bull by the horns.

Just so you know, you might have to buy a new gearbox… or learn how to make three right turns in order to go backwards.

——————

Hello Baraza,

I have a Toyota Duet (YOM 2000) which was a perfect car until some time last year when it stalled on the road.

When the car was fixed by the mechanic, it started vibrating. He told me the mountings needed to be changed, which I authorised and the work was carried out.

Several months later, despite numerous visits to the mechanic, the vibrations have not stopped.

This problem is more pronounced when in traffic jams and the car is in gear. I have now changed all the mountings and I’m wondering what is next.

I love the car and its fuel efficiency. It normally does not give me any other problems as I take it for service regularly when it is due (every 5,000 km).

Alfred Njau.

——————

I strongly suspect you changed the mounts for nothing. I think the first mechanic messed up the idling settings on your car, so have the idle checked (at the throttle body), before you commit yourself to more expensive measures.

Let me know how this goes and we will take it up from there.

Posted on 1 Comment

The Vista is Toyota’s answer to luxurious Cadillac saloon

At first glance, the Vista saloon looks like a hurried design job, with its short bonnet and stubby boot flanking a passenger cell gift-wrapped in an acre of glass and sheet metal, but the looks tend to grow on you.

The navy blue that our unwitting test vehicle came in does justice to its lines, and coupled with that chrome nose, it lends the car a regal appearance. Continue reading The Vista is Toyota’s answer to luxurious Cadillac saloon